Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea

A cross-sectional study

Kyeong Jin Kim, Yoon Jung Kim, Sun Hwa Kim, Jee Hyun An, Hye-Jin Yoo, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei-Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Nam Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Design: Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. Participants: A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87% and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m2) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (.18.5 and<23 kg/m2). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95% CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95% CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95% CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere009140
JournalBMJ Open
Volume5
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1

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Republic of Korea
Refugees
Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D
Cross-Sectional Studies
Body Mass Index
Minority Groups
Thinness
Health
HDL Lipoproteins
LDL Lipoproteins
Triglycerides
Chronic Disease
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Exercise
Serum
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea : A cross-sectional study. / Kim, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hwa; An, Jee Hyun; Yoo, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei-Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Nam Hoon.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 5, No. 11, e009140, 01.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: A cross-sectional study",
abstract = "Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Design: Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. Participants: A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87{\%} and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m2) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (.18.5 and<23 kg/m2). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95{\%} CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95{\%} CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95{\%} CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population.",
author = "Kim, {Kyeong Jin} and Kim, {Yoon Jung} and Kim, {Sun Hwa} and An, {Jee Hyun} and Hye-Jin Yoo and Kim, {Hee Young} and Seo, {Ji A} and Kim, {Sin Gon} and Kim, {Nan Hee} and Choi, {Kyung Mook} and Sei-Hyun Baik and Choi, {Dong Seop} and Kim, {Nam Hoon}",
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T1 - Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea

T2 - A cross-sectional study

AU - Kim, Kyeong Jin

AU - Kim, Yoon Jung

AU - Kim, Sun Hwa

AU - An, Jee Hyun

AU - Yoo, Hye-Jin

AU - Kim, Hee Young

AU - Seo, Ji A

AU - Kim, Sin Gon

AU - Kim, Nan Hee

AU - Choi, Kyung Mook

AU - Baik, Sei-Hyun

AU - Choi, Dong Seop

AU - Kim, Nam Hoon

PY - 2015/1/1

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N2 - Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Design: Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. Participants: A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87% and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m2) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (.18.5 and<23 kg/m2). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95% CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95% CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95% CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population.

AB - Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Design: Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. Participants: A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87% and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m2) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (.18.5 and<23 kg/m2). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95% CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95% CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95% CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population.

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