Zero-waste strategy by means of valorization of bread waste

Jong Min Jung, Jee Young Kim, Jung Hun Kim, Shin Myung Kim, Sungyup Jung, Hocheol Song, Eilhann E. Kwon, Yoon E. Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


To impose the zero-waste strategy through the diverse valorization route, this study used bread waste (BW) as the model compound. To realize these grand technical challenges, BW was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain a monomer sugar compound (glucose), and glucose was used as the carbon substrate in heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis). Cultivation of E. gracilis using cultivation medium derived from BW was evaluated from a perspective of an economic viability. In addition, the more production of the target compound (paramylon, β-1,3-glucan) stemmed from E. gracilis was achieved (1.93 g L−1d−1; 24% higher productivity than that of control). To approach zero waste disposal, bread waste residue (BWR) derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of BW was valorized into syngas. To offer a greener pyrolysis platform for BWR, CO2 was used as a raw material. Here in this study, the mechanistic functionality of CO2 was disclosed. In detail, CO2 reacted with volatile matters (VMs) evolved from BWR, thereby resulting in CO2 reduction. Simultaneously, reduced CO2 also led to oxidation of VMs. Such consecutive gas-phase-reactions (GPRs) played a critical role to enhance CO formation. Lastly, the identified GPRs induced by CO2 were tried to expedite the reaction kinetics in the presence of 5 wt% of Ni/SiO2 catalyst. As a result, the molar concentrations of H2 and CO in gaseous pyrolytic products derived from catalytic pyrolysis in CO2 environment were 2- and 6-times higher, respectively, than that from pyrolysis without catalyst in N2 environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132795
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept 10


  • Biorefinery
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Catalytic pyrolysis
  • Circular economy
  • Euglena gracilis
  • Zero-waste

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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